PHILIP HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS WIN TRIP TO WASHINGTON, DC IN NATIONAL STOCK MARKET GAME COMPETITION

South Dakota’s Philip High School finished in 6th place in the 15th Annual Capitol Hill Challenge (CHC) national program and wins an all-expenses paid trip to Washington DC for the teacher and students on the winning team. 3,374 teams representing senators and congressional representatives nationwide participated in the 14 week competition. Philip High School was matched with Senator Mike Rounds.  The top 10 winning teams and their teachers will be recognized at an Awards Reception on June 13 at the Rayburn House Office Building on Capitol Hill.

The Top 10 Schools and their Congressional representatives:

  1. Redan High School                                GA       Senator Johnny Isakson
  2. Albany High School                               CA       Rep. Barbara Lee
  3. Glacier Peak High School                      WA      Senator Maria Cantwell

4.    Waterford High School                          WI       Rep. Paul Ryan
5.    Simsbury High School                            CT       Senator Chris Murphy
6.   Philip High School                                SD       Senator Mike Rounds
7.    Granada Hills Charter High School         CA       Rep. Brad Sherman
8.    Canyonville Christian Academy              OR       Rep. Peter DeFazio
9.    Lewisburg High School                           PA       Senator Robert Casey Jr.
10.  Battle Mountain High School                  NV      Senator Catherine Cortez Masto

Philip High School teacher Brigitte Bruchlacher participated in the program with her Family & Consumer Sciences class.  Her student team of Dyson Schofield and Hunter Peterson, both juniors, finished with a final portfolio of $ 115, 322.  Their big winner was the purchase of Solar Edge Technologies (SEDG) that increased 85 % over 14 weeks.  “Philip High School is the first South Dakota school to place in the CDC top 10 nationally and that is quite an impressive accomplishment considering that there were nearly 3,400 teams competing from all 50 states,” said Professor Don Altmyer, South Dakota Stock Market Game Coordinator and Director for the BHSU Center for Economic Education.

The CHC organizes teams of middle and high school students by congressional district for each state and teaches the importance of saving and investing, while simultaneously promoting a better understanding of our government. Teams invest a hypothetical $100,000 for a 14 week time period in listed stocks, bonds, and mutual funds and learn the value of the capital markets as they work together to maximize the return of their portfolios.

Since the Capitol Hill Challenge began in 2004, the program has made more than 4,100 matches of U.S. representatives and senators with schools, reaching more than 115,000 students. Middle and high school students from all 50 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia are participating in this year’s competition.  The CHC competition is sponsored by the SIFMA Foundation for Investor Education.

“Capitol Hill Challenge provides critical educational experiences to young people across America, enabling students who otherwise might not be exposed to the capital markets to gain insights that lead to their success,” said Melanie Mortimer, president of the SIFMA Foundation. “Capitol Hill Challenge students experience the positive compounding effect of understanding from an early age how finance, civics and government touch their lives.”

The competition uses the SIFMA Foundation’s curriculum-based Stock Market Game to help students develop a better understanding of the global economy, become college and career ready, and improve their knowledge of math, economics, and business. The program is proven to raise student scores on tests of mathematics, economics and financial knowledge. It is also proven to positively impact students’ and teachers’ personal financial behavior.

Founded in 1977 by academics at Buffalo State, The Stock Market Game has since expanded through a national network of educational nonprofit organizations to reach 17 million students. An independent study by Learning Point Associates found that students who participated in the Stock Market Game scored significantly higher on mathematics and financial literacy tests than their peers who did not participate. They also found that teachers who taught the Stock Market Game reported that the program motivated them to better plan for their own financial futures. The Stock Market Game has been named the only program that successfully increased scores on the Jumpstart Coalition’s test of high school students’ financial literacy.

The Capitol Hill Challenge is just one component of the Stock Market Game, which operates in all 50 states. The program has significant benefits including professional development opportunities for teachers, teamwork and confidence building for students, and reinforcement of students’ technology and online research skills (the trading simulation is online). The program improves students’ and teachers’ financial knowledge and behavior and fulfills national standards and state-level subject matter requirements in ELA, Math, Social Studies, Business, Economics, Technology, and Consumer Science.

The dates for the Fall 2018 South Dakota Stock Market Game are: October 1 to Dec 7 and for the Spring 2019 Game: February 11 to April 8.  To learn more about the South Dakota Stock Market Game program, visit www.stockmarketgame.org or contact Professor Don Altmyer, South Dakota Stock Market Game Coordinator at donaltmyer@bhsu.edu

Sustained Effort Needed to Reduce Infant Mortality In South Dakota

PIERRE, S.D. – South Dakota’s infant mortality rate increased in 2017, according to new data released today by the Department of Health. There were 12,128 births in 2017 and 94 infant deaths for a rate of 7.8 deaths per 1,000 live births.

The state reported its lowest ever American Indian infant mortality rate of 8.6 deaths per 1,000 live births. The white infant mortality rate was 7 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2016, South Dakota reported a rate of 4.8 deaths per 1,000 live births. Although the state’s infant mortality rate increased in 2017, the average infant mortality rate for the five-year period from 2013 to 2017 is the lowest ever recorded at 6.5 deaths per 1,000 live births.

“Infant mortality is a complex and multi-faceted issue, and the latest data demonstrates that sustained effort is needed to ensure more South Dakota babies celebrate their first birthday,” said First Lady Linda Daugaard, who chaired the 2011 Governor’s Task Force on Infant Mortality. “We must continue to promote safe sleep guidelines for infants, help pregnant women stop smoking and encourage early prenatal care.”

South Dakota data shows babies are twice as likely to die before their first birthday if their mothers smoke during pregnancy. In 2017, 12.6 percent of pregnant women smoked while pregnant, down from 19.4 percent in 2007. The data also shows 72.2 percent of pregnant women in South Dakota received prenatal care in the first trimester.

“Infant mortality is considered a gold standard for measuring the health of a population,” said Kim Malsam-Rysdon, Secretary of Health. “The Department of Health, in cooperation with partners, is committed to offering statewide services and providing community support to improve the health of all South Dakotans.”

The First Lady noted the state’s Cribs for Kids program has distributed 9,759 safe sleep kits to families in need since its launch in 2012. The kits include a Pack ‘N Play crib, sheet, infant sleep sack, pacifier and safe sleep educational materials.

Learn more about healthy pregnancies and safe sleep guidelines at ForBabySakeSD.com.

NEW PLAN AIMS TO REVERSE MONARCH BUTTERFLY DECLINE

 

File Photo

The Midwest Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (MAFWA) welcomes public comments through May 31 on a draft conservation plan that provides a blueprint for reversing the decline of the eastern monarch butterfly population.

The draft plan, called the Mid-America Monarch Conservation Strategy, builds on existing efforts of state, federal, and local agencies and private organizations and individuals. It covers a 16-state region stretching from Texas to the Upper Midwest that encompasses the primary production and migratory habitat areas for eastern monarchs (see map). Other eastern monarch states are also collaborating with the plan.

The draft plan identifies conservation goals and strategies for improving habitats in various sectors or categories of land use such as natural areas, agricultural lands, urban lands, and rights of way. State wildlife agencies and partners will be working to add milkweed plants where lacking and to ensure diverse, nectar-plant-rich landscapes with blooming species during seasons when monarchs are present.

“In addition to their beauty, pollinators such as butterflies, bees, and other species provide important pollination services critical to our food supplies and economies,” said Terry Steinwand, MAFWA President. “This is the first phase of a long-term strategy that will require increased commitment of people and resources to support enhanced monarch and pollinator conservation and monitoring efforts by many partners over the next 20 years.”

Eastern monarchs, those found east of the Rocky Mountains, have declined by more than 80 percent over the past 20 years primarily due to habitat loss, including reduced milkweed required for reproduction and fewer nectar plants. In 2014 the monarch was petitioned for listing under the federal Endangered Species Act, and a decision on whether listing is warranted is expected in 2019.

Monarchs produce multiple generations each year and undertake a lengthy fall migration from the U.S. and southern Canada to the forested mountains of central Mexico where they overwinter. The goal of the strategy is to coordinate state and partner efforts to restore and enhance habitat to support an average overwintering population in Mexico occupying about 15 acres (6 hectares), consistent with international goals.

The plan primarily focuses on voluntary and incentive-based habitat restoration and enhancement efforts, but also includes priority education and outreach, research, and monitoring needs related to monarch conservation.

For more information, a copy of the draft strategy, and how to submit comments, please visit the MAFWA website at Mid-America Monarch Conservation Strategy.

INTERAGENCY CUSTER COUNTY LANDOWNER WORKSHOP “PROTECT YOUR HOME AND PROPERTY” MAY 18, 2018

Custer, SD A landowner workshop, “Protect your home and property” will be held on Friday, May 18 from 9:00 a.m. – 1:00 p.m. at the Argyle Fire Hall, 12000 Mountain Lion Lane, Hot Springs, SD.

Multiple agencies are working together to reach out to landowners, provide information on land stewardship and encourage management for more resilient forests across all lands.

Experts will discuss: living with fire; insect, weed and pine management; and technical assistance and cost-sharing programs available to landowners; followed by a field trip showing thinning and fuel treatment.

A free lunch will be offered.

The workshop is sponsored by Custer County Conservation District and the South Dakota Family Forest Association.

Cooperating agencies include South Dakota Department of Agriculture (SDDA) Resource Conservation & Forestry and SDDA Wildland Fire; USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service; Custer County Weed & Pest; and US Forest Service.

Registration RSVP is appreciated by May 14 with Angie Keierleber, Custer County Conservation District, 605-673-4971 or e-mail custer.county@sdstate.edu.

DAKOTA STATE UNIVERSITY OFFERS CYBER LEADERSHIP DEGREE – NEW SPECIALIZATIONS

VERMILLION, S.D. – A new degree program that would attract, after it is fully implemented, more than 100 students to Dakota State University to study cyber leadership will be available starting this fall.

The South Dakota Board of Regents authorized the university in Madison to offer a bachelor of science degree in cyber leadership and intelligence, both on campus and online. It is the first program of its kind at the state’s public universities, although Dakota State does grant related degrees in cyber operations and in network and security administration.

DSU officials said this unique interdisciplinary program equips students with the knowledge of cyber systems and world cultures, international politics, human behavior, and leadership. New graduates will be prepared to work with government leaders and corporate executives to develop strategies to defend those organizations from cyber disruption. The federal Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates more than 28,000 professionals will be needed in cyber-related fields by 2026.

In other action, the regents approved two new specializations available to students within existing degree programs at Dakota State.

One is a specialization in artificial intelligence and machine learning, which will be an option for study within the B.S. degree in computer science. Graduates with this specialization will learn certain skills related to automation of tasks and analyzing data, which will provide them new opportunities for employment in multiple workforce sectors.

Also approved was a specialization in information assurance within the DSU master of science degree in information systems. This focused study will prepare graduate students to manage risks related to the use, processing, storage, and transmission of information or data. Graduates with this specialization will be prepared for employment in high-demand occupations such as IT business analyst, information architect, information assurance manager, IT manager, chief security officer, and chief technology officer.

South Dakota Board of Education Standards Holds First Reading To Update Graduation Requirements

VERMILLION, S.D. – The South Dakota Board of Education Standards held a first reading of proposed changes to state graduation requirements at its meeting today.

The proposal came about after discussions among education stakeholders across the state this spring. South Dakota’s current graduation requirements were adopted in 2009. Stakeholders have been examining whether these requirements continue to meet the needs of students, employers and communities.

Proposed changes aim to combine opportunities for rigor, student engagement and flexibility. The proposal was developed to provide students with multiple opportunities to meet their postsecondary and career goals within a framework of general high school graduation requirements.

Learn more about the proposed requirements by visiting http://doe.sd.gov/gradrequirements/.

The public is encouraged to engage in the statewide conversation about this proposal. The official public comment period will open June 6. Written comments will be accepted until July 13, with a public hearing before the Board of Education Standards scheduled on July 16.

Library of Congress and Bibliothèque Nationale de France Announce Collaboration on International Digital Content

Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden and Laurence Engel, president of the Bibliothèque National de France (BnF), today announced a collaboration between the Library of Congress and the BnF to provide digital content for a new online space for collections relating to shared French-American history. The initiative will also be supported by other U.S. organizations, including the National Archives.

During the special visit to the Library, President Macron and his wife, Brigitte, viewed a display that included treasures from the Library of Congress and National Archives that will be part of the international collaboration, which highlights an extensive tradition of close cooperation between the United States and France.

Through direct digital access to complete books, maps, prints and other documents from the collections of the partner libraries, the new bilingual website will focus on the cultural and historical connections between France and Northern America and, more specifically, the United States during the 16th through the 19thcenturies.

This digital space, which revitalizes a previous initiative called “France in America,” is part of the missions of the Library of Congress and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France to make their resources available to ever-growing audiences and to preserve a universal collection of knowledge and creativity for future generations.

“The Library of Congress is thrilled to continue these mutual efforts with the National Library of France to collect, preserve and provide access to the rich cultural heritage of France and French-Americans,” said Hayden. “Together we have a substantial collection of materials reflecting the deep historical and cultural connections between France and the United States, as well as materials documenting and celebrating French-American life.”

“Since the epic story of the New France, our two nations share also a common history,” said Engel. “The future website, a joint initiative of the Library of Congress and the National Library of France, will associate prestigious American institutions such as the National Archives to bring it to life for the benefit of all.”

“The National Archives is honored to be celebrating the important historical ties between our countries by sharing our unique French-American documents in this exciting international venture,” said Archivist of the United States David S. Ferriero.

As a key part of this collaboration, Bibliothèque Nationale de France will create and host the website, which is part of its collection “Shared Heritage,” while the Library of Congress will select and make available high-quality digital scans of relevant materials from its collections.

The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, offering access to the creative record of the United States—and extensive materials from around the world—both on-site and online. It is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office. Explore collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at loc.gov; access the official site for U.S. federal legislative information at congress.gov; and register creative works of authorship at copyright.gov.

The Bibliothèque Nationale de France is one of the oldest national libraries in the world tracing its origins back to a medieval royal collection and benefiting from one of the earliest legislation regarding Legal Deposit, promulgated as soon as 1537. Its collections are global and as such reflect France’s position in the world across the centuries, the humanist tradition and the Enlightenment. Visit collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at www.bnf.fr as well as discover Gallica, the digital library, at gallica.bnf.fr.

The National Archives serves American democracy by safeguarding and preserving the records of our government, so people can discover, use and learn from this documentary heritage.  From the Declaration of Independence to accounts of ordinary Americans, the holdings of the National Archives directly touch the lives of millions of people. The National Archives carries out its mission through a nationwide network of archives, records centers and Presidential Libraries, and online at www.archives.gov.

EMBRACING CHANGE

 

Embracing Change. Photo: NASA

 

By Peg Ryan
Mile High Pilates and Yoga

We are all temporary residents of Planet Earth and none of us knows when our visa will expire.  Despite the fact that this is the one certain fact of our existence, we spend our lives either resisting or, mostly, ignoring it. Hoping it will just go away.  Or maybe somehow we will miraculously be exempt.  Of course, no one wants to dwell on the fact of his/her own demise even though it is inevitable.  Our society has an uncomfortable relationship with this concept.  Some of us have beliefs about what happens after death that subdue negative thinking on the subject.  But mostly what we think of when we reflect on the impermanence of life is it’s loss.  And it’s not just people but every living thing on the planet that will undergo the transformation from life to not-life, whatever that entails.  Those left behind lose someone or something, creating a void where that living being once was.  Those about to move into the transition will lose everything that is familiar, the perceptions that a lifetime of consciousness has provided.  They think of all the events they will miss.  So it’s not really death that we worry about.  Of course, we may fear the potential pain that might accompany death.  But what we really fear is loss.  And change.

No one likes change.  Yet change is as inevitable as death.  Everything is changing all the time, and despite our best efforts, there is nothing we can do to stop it.  Even when we think we’ve managed to head off certain changes, other changes will still occur that may not have been anticipated.  This is not to say that we shouldn’t work to make changes that could improve our lives.  But outcomes will most likely be different from what we expected when we began this work. Unexpected things happen all the time.  This is why many thinkers on these subjects recommend focussing on the process, rather than the outcome.  There’s an old Yiddish saying, “Man plans and God laughs”.  Life is unpredictable.  Pay attention to the journey, but let the chips fall where they may.

Loss comes in many forms, not just the ultimate.  Often we fail to acknowledge the significance of other losses in our lives.  Sometimes we know they are coming, other times we don’t.  Either way, we don’t always have a choice in how things work out.  We lose jobs, homes, money, youth, independence, etc., etc.  Even when we think we’ve chosen well, there are many factors beyond our control.  Sometimes things work out the way we want, sometimes they don’t.   It’s so easy to judge the actions of others.  Or to beat up on ourselves when we think we’ve made some huge blunder.  Hindsight is 20-20.  But most of us do the best we can with what we have to work with at the time.  And time only moves in one direction.  There is no going back.  What exists right now is what we have to work with.  We can’t change other people.  Circumstances beyond our control create situations that can’t be changed.  Sometimes we can change parts and pieces or maybe work toward a change.  But for the most part the only thing we can change is our attitude and perception.

In an article in Yoga Journal author Sally Kempton talks about navigating through change.  She cites “the Buddhist Doctrine of Impermanence, annica, [which] tells us that change is inevitable, continuous, and unavoidable.”  There is also a way of viewing this as the constantly shifting nature of energy:

“the intrinsic, dynamic power at the heart of life. . . . Every moment, every enterprise, every cell, is part of this flow of creation, sustenance, and dissolution. This flow is happening on a macrocosmic level—as the flow of seasons, tides, and cultures—and on a microcosmic level, through the various shifts in your physical states, the ups and downs of your life, and the flow of thoughts and emotions in your mind.”

When seen this way, even the most determined control freak must acknowledge that these changes are happening right before our eyes in every moment of every day.  Like it or not.

Perhaps instead of thinking of “endings” and “beginnings”, we can think of change as heralding transformation.  Part of our fear of loss is fear of the unknown.  What will be on the other side of this loss?  We know what life was like before the change.  How will we deal with what comes next? Even if the current state of affairs is not optimal, at least it’s familiar – the “devil you know “.  In the article cited above, Ms. Kempton also talks about ritual.  She writes, “In traditional societies, every phase of life was regarded as an initiation into a new way of being and was marked with a ceremony. . . Nowadays, we don’t always do a ceremony, but we still undergo initiations.”  All life changes require us to “step outside your habits, test your skills, and, for a time, inhabit the unknown. . . Each of these changes will subtly or even dramatically redefine you. You won’t be quite the same person after you step out of the old situation and into the new.”  Furthermore, “the change itself . . is the doorway into the next stage of growth—one that propels you into a deeper relationship with yourself and the world.”

The article goes on to provide some ideas for moving through change gracefully.  These, of course, require practice. Practice implies that success is not guaranteed, but there will always be another opportunity to try.  There are many articles and numerous suggestions from all kinds of authors on what to include in such a practice.  Everyone needs to find what works for them.  Still when change is sudden and catastrophic, it can be difficult to remember how to practice, let alone recognize that you are embarking on a new way of life.  Mourning is also a ritual.  Recognizing loss and the need to mourn is just as important as accepting change.  But all suggestions seem to boil down to the same concept:  leave the past behind, let the future take care of itself and simply be here now.  In this moment.  Hear your breath.  Count your blessings.  If you’re still a resident on the planet with an unexpired visa there will always be something to be grateful for.  Loss hurts.  It’s OK to hurt.  It’s part of being human.  Allow it.  Be kind to yourself.

WHAT’S UNCONSCIOUS BIAS TRAINING AND DOES IT WORK ?

Calvin K. Lai
Washington University in St Louis

A Starbucks manager in Philadelphia called the police on two black men on April 13, leading to their arrest. The two men, who had been waiting for a friend at the store, were released without being charged.

Starbucks has since apologized and announced it will close more than 8,000 of its stores in the United States to provide “racial bias” training for its 175,000 employees. Starbucks’ COO Roz Brewer said the sessions would focus on “unconscious bias training,” a form of diversity education that focuses on the hidden causes of everyday racial discrimination.

Unconscious bias training has become a popular approach to diversity education. The trainings often begin with demonstrations of how the mind operates in ways that are outside of conscious awareness or control. These demonstrations show that people make, and sometimes act on, snap judgments based on the other person’s race, without any conscious intention.

Research shows that this source of racial discrimination can be reduced in a number of ways. For example, setting objective criteria for decision-making could have made a difference in the Starbucks incident. As Starbucks CEO Kevin Johnson described, the manager used personal judgment in calling the police. Formal rules that prevent the influence of racial bias in calling the police could have prevented the incident altogether.

Some unconscious bias trainings incorporate discussions of solutions such as these. But there is no standard format for trainings. Some involve little more than a series of narrated PowerPoint slides. Others involve expert instructors who hold small, intensive workshops that can last for days.

The novelty of unconscious bias training means there is little direct evidence about whether it works. To determine its potential, researchers have turned to clues from other types of training.

One study looked at older types of diversity trainings that focused on the negative legal consequences of discrimination. It found that such trainings can backfire when managers resent the possibility that they could be singled out for punishment.

By contrast, employees may be more open to unconscious bias training because it focuses on how bias is universal, rather than singling out a few “bad apples.”

However, other research shows that highlighting the prevalence of bias makes people more likely to express their bias.

The ConversationUnconscious bias training will not solve the whole problem. Discrimination has other causes that aren’t fully dealt with in this kind of training, such as explicit prejudice or policies that have disparate impacts on people of different races. Effective solutions will require multiple approaches to addressing discrimination, not just one.

Calvin K. Lai,
Assistant Professor of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Washington University in St Louis

Papers of Benjamin Franklin Now Online

 

Collection Includes Copies of First Continental Congress Petition to King George III, Drafts of the Treaty of Paris, Diplomatic Correspondence, Notes on Electricity and Drawing of Bifocals

This print shows Benjamin Franklin seated at a desk, looking to his right at an electrical device. In his left hand are papers upon which he is taking notes, and visible through a window to his left is lightning striking a building. (Edward Fisher, engraver, after a painting by Mason Chamberlin, 1763. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress)

The papers of American scientist, statesman and diplomat Benjamin Franklin have been digitized and are now available online for the first time from the Library of Congress. The Library announced the digitization today in remembrance of the anniversary of Franklin’s death on April 17, 1790.

The Franklin papers consist of approximately 8,000 items mostly dating from the 1770s and 1780s. These include the petition that the First Continental Congress sent to Franklin, then a colonial diplomat in London, to deliver to King George III; letterbooks Franklin kept as he negotiated the Treaty of Paris that ended the Revolutionary War; drafts of the treaty; notes documenting his scientific observations, and correspondence with fellow scientists.

The collection is online at: loc.gov/collections/benjamin-franklin-papers/about-this-collection.

“Benjamin Franklin made history and won respect around the world as a diplomat, publisher, scientist and scholar,” said Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden. “We are thrilled to make this collection of documents by one of the nation’s founding fathers available to highlight his unique role in American history.”

Highlights of the Franklin papers include:

  • Two copies of the petition the First Continental Congress sent to Franklin to present to King George III in 1774 “to lay our grievances before the throne.”
  • Franklin’s scientific speculation on the speed of ships in 1775 while on board a vessel returning from England to America just before the Revolutionary War.
  • Correspondence with John Adams, King George III, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette and George Washington, among others.
  • Franklin’s Craven Street letterbook, one of the few pre-Revolutionary letterbooks from Franklin to survive, documenting his life as a colonial diplomat in London.
  • Letters exchanged with his wife, Deborah Read Franklin, and his son, loyalist William Franklin, before their estrangement.
  • Franklin’s drawing of bifocal glasses, which he is credited with inventing.
  • Franklin’s letter explaining the effects of lightning on a church steeple.

The Franklin papers have been at the Library of Congress for more than 100 years but had a turbulent history. Many of Franklin’s early papers were scattered and damaged, though he accumulated many more. When he died in 1790, Franklin left his papers to his grandson, William Temple Franklin, who published some of them as the “Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Benjamin Franklin” in 1817-1818. Some of the papers Temple Franklin published were later found cut up in a London tailor shop. The papers were eventually returned to the U.S., purchased by the U.S. government and kept at the U.S. State Department until the early 20thcentury, when they were transferred to the Library of Congress.

Additional Franklin papers are held by the American Philosophical Society and the University of Pennsylvania, both of which Franklin founded in Philadelphia.

The digitization of the Franklin papers is part of a larger effort to make historical materials available online. Other newly digitized collections include the papers of U.S. Presidents James Buchanan, Ulysses S. Grant, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce and James K. Polk, and the papers of Alexander Hamilton, Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

The Library of Congress is the world’s largest library, offering access to the creative record of the United States—and extensive materials from around the world—both on-site and online. It is the main research arm of the U.S. Congress and the home of the U.S. Copyright Office. Explore collections, reference services and other programs and plan a visit at loc.gov; access the official site for U.S. federal legislative information at congress.gov; and register creative works of authorship at copyright.gov.